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Številka 3-4/2015 ~ Issue 3-4/2015



Alenka Žbogar: Uvodnik: In človek bom, ki ga terja naš čas!. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 5.

Alenka Žbogar: Editorial. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 5.

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|5



Tomo Virk: Tektonski premiki v didaktiki književnosti: ob jubileju Bože Krakar Vogel. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 7–13.
Članek se osredotoča na delo Bože Krakar Vogel kot utemeljiteljice slovenske didaktike književnosti v njeni sodobni, strokovno vsestransko podprti podobi. Na kratko oriše širok domet njenega delovanja na tem področju, podrobneje pa obravnava predvsem njena prizadevanja za izboljšanje pouka književnosti v gimnazijah. Temeljno vodilo teh prizadevanj je načelo natančnega empatičnega branja, ki omogoča dostop do specifike literature, v povezavi s kontekstualizacijo literarnih pojavov.
Ključne besede: Boža Krakar Vogel, didaktika književnosti, natančno branje, kultura branja, maturitetni esej

Tomo Virk: Tectonic Shifts in the Didactics of Literature: On the Occasion of Boža Krakar Vogel’s 65th Birthday. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 7–13.
The article focuses on the work of Boža Krakar Vogel, the founder of Slovenian didactics of literature in its modern, theoretically well-supported form. It briefly outlines the broad range of her professional engagement in this area, focusing in particular detail on her efforts to improve the teaching of literature in grammar schools. The basic premise of these efforts is the principle of empathic close reading, which provides access to the specifics of literature, in conjunction with the contextualisation of literary phenomena.
Keywords: Boža Krakar Vogel, didactics of literature, close reading, reading culture, Matura essay

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|7–13



Ada Vidovič Muha: Živeti sredi ustvarjalnega dela. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 15–16.

Ada Vidovič Muha: To Live Amidst Creative Work. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 15–16.

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|15–16



Matjaž Kmecl: Voščilni zapis ob življenjskem jubileju kolegice Bože Krakar Vogel. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 17–18.

Matjaž Kmecl: In Honour of Our Colleague Boža Krakar Vogel on the Occasion of Her 65th Birthday. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 17–18.

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|17–18



Lidija Golc: Za dobro žetev. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 19–20.

Lidija Golc: For a Good Harvest. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 19–20.

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|19–20



Tanja Jelenko: Mentorica. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 21–22.

Tanja Jelenko: Mentor. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 21–22.

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|21–22



Aleksander Bjelčevič: Kako poučevati verzologijo: silabotonična metrika in ritmika. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 23–33.
Ko dijaki in študenti pri določanju »stopic« naletijo na težavo, da skoraj noben verz ne ustreza metrični shemi, težavo odpravimo s preprosto statistično metodo in spremenjeno definicijo pojmov jamb, trohej, daktil in amfibrah. Znaka – in U ne pomenita naglašenega in nenaglašenega zloga, ampak pomenita, da so naglašeni zlogi na teh dveh položajih pogosti oz. redki. Na primer jamb je verz, kjer so parni zlogi pogosteje naglašeni kot neparni. S tem se da razložiti moške rime brez naglasov, dojame se razlika med silabotoničnim verzom in prozo.
Ključne besede: poučevanje poezije, ritem, jamb, statistična metoda

Aleksander Bjelčevič: How to Teach Versology: Accentual-Syllabic Metrum and Rhythm. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 23–33.
Students have trouble determining accentual-syllabic rhythm because there is rarely a complete correspondence between meter and accent in Slovenian poetry. This problem can be solved with simple statistics and modified definitions of iamb, trochee, dactyl, amphibrach and anapest. The symbols – and U do not, therefore, represent accented and unaccented syllables, but rather indicate that accented syllables occur often (−) and rarely (U), respectively, in these metrical positions. The proper definition of, for example, iamb is therefore “poetic meter where even metrical positions bear significantly more accented syllables than odd positions”. Statistics can also explain unaccented masculine rhyme and make the difference between accentual-syllabic verse and prose visible.
Keywords: teaching poetry, rhythm, iamb, statistical method

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|23–33



Blanka Bošnjak: Razvijanje kulturne kompetence ob kratki prozi Mire Mihelič. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 35–41.
Prispevek najprej poda kratek pregled literarnozgodovinskih ter literarnokritičnih odzivov na kratko prozo Mire Mihelič (1912–1985), ki jim lahko sledimo v knjižnih, revijalnih in časopisnih objavah. Literarnozgodovinsko perspektivo je mogoče povezati s cilji sistemske didaktike, z izborom in interpretacijo v študijskem procesu s področja slovenske književnosti, natančneje sodobne kratke proze, ki vključuje razvijanje kulturne zavesti s pridobivanjem profesionalnih kompetenc med študijem.
Ključne besede: kratka proza, Mira Mihelič, interpretacija, kulturna kompetenca

Blanka Bošnjak: Developing Cultural Competence in Studying Short Prose by Mira Mihelič. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 35–41.
The article first introduces a short overview of the reactions of literary history and literary criticism to the short stories of Mira Mihelič (1912–1985), which can be found in books, magazines and newspaper publications. The literary-historical perspective introduced can then, in the study process, be linked to the goals of systemic didactics and to selection and interpretation in the field of Slovenian literature, in particular contemporary literature, which includes the development of cultural awareness by gaining professional competence while studying.
Keywords: short story, Mira Mihelič, interpretation, cultural competence

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|35–41



Zoran Božič: Tantadrujevo iskanje sreče: od didaktike do interpretacije. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 43–53.
Članek obravnava primer šolske interpretacije srednje dolgega pripovednega besedila, in sicer po načelu učne verige odlomkov z vprašanji za tesno branje. Ta didaktični pristop se je sicer na Slovenskem uveljavljal že pred drugo svetovno vojno, bolj sistematično uresničitev pa je doživel z izidom delovnih zvezkov za domače branje Zlati poljub in Poljub zlata leta 1998. Po skoraj dveh desetletjih šolske rabe je čas za natančnejšo presojo pristopa oz. njegove uporabnosti, tudi s pomočjo primerjave dveh učnih verig, nastalih po znani Kosmačevi noveli Tantadruj. Članek zaključuje interpretativni poskus, ki Tantadrujevo iskanje sreče povezuje s pripovedovalčevim iskanjem ustvarjalnega navdiha.
Ključne besede: Ciril Kosmač, učna veriga, tesno branje, domače branje, didaktika književnosti

Zoran Božič: Tantadruj’s Search for Happiness: from Didactics to Interpretation. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 43–53.
The paper presents a case study of the school interpretation of a medium-length narrative text based on the principle of a learning chain of fragments equipped with questions for close reading. This didactic approach became widespread in Slovenia prior to the Second World War, achieving systematic implementation with the publication of two workbooks for home reading: Zlati poljub (Golden Kiss) and Poljub zlata (Kiss of Gold) in 1998. After almost two decades of school use, it is time for a more detailed assessment of the approach and its usefulness. The assessment has been undertaken partly through a comparison of two learning chains that were created based on the well-known short story Tantadruj by Kosmač. The paper concludes with an interpretative attempt that connects Tantadruj’s search for happiness with the narrator’s search for creative inspiration.
Keywords: Ciril Kosmač, learning chain, close reading, home reading, didactics of literature

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|43–53



Jožica Jožef Beg: Vzgoja kultiviranega bralca kot najpomembnejši cilj pouka književnosti v gimnaziji. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 55–63.
Vzgoja kultiviranega bralca je najpomembnejši cilj gimnazijskega pouka književnosti in opravičuje uveljavljanje sistemske literarnodidaktične paradigme, hkrati pa se prekriva tudi z razvojem didaktike književnosti v evropskem prostoru. Teza je v prispevku ponazorjena s primerom iz učnega načrta za slovenščino (2008) in dokumenta Evropski literarni okvir za učitelje v srednjih šolah (2012) ter z ugotovitvami iz raziskave o tem, kako dijaki razumevajo vpliv branja leposlovja in pouka književnosti na različna področja lastnega delovanja.
Ključne besede: pouk književnosti, kultivirani bralec, literarna zmožnost, sistemska didaktika, gimnazija

Jožica Jožef Beg: The Education of a Cultivated Reader as the Key Goal of Literature Classes in Grammar School. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 55–63.
The most important goal of literature classes in grammar schools is the education of cultivated readers. This goal justifies the implementation of a systemic literary didactic paradigm, while also overlapping with European trends in literature didactics. The thesis in the present article is illustrated first with an example from the Curriculum for Slovenian Language (2008), followed by an example from the document The Literary Framework for Teachers in Secondary Education (2012), and finally with findings from research conducted to determine how students’ own experience with reading literature/fiction and with literature classes influences the way they perform various tasks in their lives.
Keywords: literature classes, cultivated reader, literary competences, systemic didactics, grammar schools

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|55–63



Milena Kerndl: Književnodidaktične kompetence učiteljev slovenščine med študijem in prakso. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 65–74.
V članku so predstavljeni rezultati ankete med učitelji slovenščine v tretjem vzgojno-izobraževalnem obdobju osnovne šole o pridobljenih znanjih oz. kompetencah med dodiplomskim študijem za poučevanje književnosti. Iz rezultatov raziskave izhaja, da razkorak med potrebami pouka slovenščine in usposobljenostjo diplomantov vsekakor obstaja in se (pre)počasi zmanjšuje. Da bi ta razkorak hitreje zmanjšali, bi bilo dobro, da stopijo skupaj vse institucije, ki izobražujejo učitelje na dodiplomskem študiju, in tiste, ki skrbijo za njihovo nadaljnjo strokovno rast. S skupnimi močmi bi bilo moč prej dvigniti usposobljenost učiteljev za kakovosten in sodoben pouk književnosti v osnovni šoli, kar pomeni tudi za dvig kulture visokih pričakovanj pri razvijanju recepcijske zmožnosti učencev. Vključevanje zahtevnih bralnih nalog, ki razvijajo kritično vrednotenje, namreč še ni prevladujoča praksa, kar kažejo rezultati raziskav že nekaj časa (PISA, NPZ). Zagotovo je utemeljen tudi razmislek o študijskih programih za učitelje slovenščine in o številu ur specialne didaktike.
Ključne besede: kompetence učiteljev, pouk književnosti, osnovna šola, tretje triletje

Milena Kerndl: Literary Didactic Competences of Slovenian Language Teachers during Pre-service Training and Teaching Practice. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 65–74.
The article presents the results of a questionnaire for third-cycle primary school Slovenian language teachers. The questionnaire is about the knowledge or competences that teachers gained during their pre-service literature training. The research demonstrates that there is a gap between the requirements of Slovenian language instruction and the expertise of new teachers, and that this gap is being reduced too slowly. In order to bridge the gap, it would be advisable for all of the institutions involved in pre- and in-service teacher training to cooperate more. Only common endeavours will contribute to a higher level of teacher expertise in quality and modern literature instruction, which would consequently lead to a culture of higher expectations in developing students’ reception ability. According to research results (PISA, national examinations), the inclusion of demanding reading tasks that develop critical judgement is not yet everyday practice, which is why one should consider both the existing study programmes for future Slovenian language teachers as well as the number of special didactics lessons.
Keywords: teacher competences, literature instruction, primary school, third cycle

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|65–74



Vida Medved Udovič: Med komunikacijskim in problemsko-ustvarjalnim poukom književnosti. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 75–85.
Prispevek osvetljuje poučevanje književnosti v osnovni šoli, ugotavlja, da je osrednji pristop k le-temu komunikacijski model zbliževanja književnosti z mladim bralcem od prvega do devetega razreda. Predlaga, da bi ga v drugem in predvsem tretjem vzgojno-izobraževalnem obdobju nadgradili tudi z elementi sistemske didaktike in problemsko-ustvarjalnim poukom. Analizira anketni vprašalnik, ki je bil izveden s študenti 4. letnika Pedagoške fakultete Univerze na Primorskem, na osnovi katerega so bila pridobljena stališča študentov o obravnavani problematiki prispevka.
Ključne besede: književnodidaktični pristopi, bralna zmožnost, učni načrt za slovenščino

Vida Medved Udovič: Between Communication-Oriented and Problem-Solving/Creative Teaching of Literature. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 75–85.
The paper sheds light on the teaching of literature in primary schools and identifies the communication model of bringing literature closer to young readers from the first to the ninth grade as the central approach to implementing this objective. It proposes that, in the second and especially in the third education cycle, this should be upgraded with elements of systemic didactics and problem-solving and creative teaching. In discussing literary texts, it points to the significance of the interpretation of less-known vocabulary and analyses a survey questionnaire carried out with fourth-year students at the Koper Faculty of Education, on the basis of which students’ attitudes towards the topics discussed in the paper were acquired.
Keywords: literary didactic approaches, reading competence, syllabus for Slovenian

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|75–85



Mateja Pezdirc Bartol: Dramska besedila na maturi. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 87–95.
V prispevku analiziram Seznam tematskih sklopov in predpisanih besedil od mature 1995 do splošne mature 2015 in ugotavljam, da je bila dramatika zastopana šestkrat, največkrat izbrana dramatika pa Ibsen in Cankar. Ker obravnava literarnih del za maturo omogoča celostno šolsko interpretacijo in integralno doživetje besedila, kamor v primeru dramskega besedila sodi tudi njegova gledališka uprizoritev, v nadaljevanju navajam različna vprašanja in naloge, ki so usmerjeni tako v zaznavanje elementov gledališke uprizoritve in njenega razmerja do dramskega besedila kot tudi v spoznavanje produkcijskih in recepcijskih procesov, ki vzpostavljajo gledališče kot družbeno prakso, s čimer se uresničujejo tudi cilji sistemske didaktike književnosti.
Ključne besede: dramatika, esej na maturi, recepcija dramskih besedil, analiza gledališke uprizoritve

Mateja Pezdirc Bartol: Drama Texts in the Matura Examination. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 87–95.
This paper analyses the List of Thematic Areas and Set Reading for the Matura Examination from 1996 to 2015. Drama is included six times, with the most frequently used texts being by Ivan Cankar and Henrik Ibsen. Matura preparation enables a complete interpretation and an integral experience of the text. Since, in the case of drama, this includes theatrical performance, I present different questions and tasks focused on the perception of elements of performance and its relationship to the dramatic text itself, as well as on becoming familiar with the production and reception processes that establish theatre as a social practice, thus meeting the aims of systematic literary didactics.
Keywords: drama, Matura essay, reception of drama texts, performance analysis

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|87–95



Katarina Podbevšek: Jesihov sonet kot govorni izziv. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 97–104.
V prispevku razpravljam o slabem in dobrem glasnem branju literarnega besedila in poudarjam nujnost priprave za učinkovito izvedbo. Na primeru Jesihovega soneta Nekega dne, ob uri, ko mrači se predstavim pripravljalni postopek na glasno interpretativno branje (govorno interpretacijo). Opozorim na pomembnost razbiranja pomenov v manjših besedilnih enotah in na mesta v jezikovni strukturi, ki omogočajo različne govorne izbire in s tem individualizirano govorno izvedbo.
Ključne besede: glasno branje literarnega besedila, priprava na govorno interpretacijo, Milan Jesih, sonet

Katarina Podbevšek: Jesihʼs Sonnet as a Challenge in Speech Interpretation. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 97–104.
In this paper, I discuss the good and poor reading aloud of a literary text and emphasise the need to prepare for effective performance. Taking Jesih’s sonnet Nekega dne, ob uri, ko mrači se as an example, I introduce the preparation process for interpretative reading (speech interpretation), emphasising the importance of decoding meanings in smaller textual units and defining the points in language structure that provide an opportunity for different speech options and individual speech interpretation.
Keywords: reading aloud of a literary text, preparing for speech interpretation, Milan Jesih, sonnet

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|97–104



Igor Saksida: Kurikularni bralci, tabuji in cenzorske strategije (primer Cankarjevo tekmovanje). Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 105–114.
Članek se v uvodu osredotoča na okrnjene pravice bralcev pri bralnem dogodku, nato opredeljuje plasti, ki sooblikujejo problemskost besedila (tema, perspektiva, zgodba, književna oseba, jezik, razpoloženje); ti dejavniki bralčevega odziva na besedilo ob vpletanju družbe in ideologije lahko besedilo spremenijo v tabujsko. V osrednjem delu analizira cenzorske strategije: anonimno spletno hujskaštvo, presojanje neprebranih besedil, pristransko poročanje (nekaterih) medijev ter omejevanje branja na podlagi vzgojno-poučnih oz. idealizacijskih pojmovanj mladinske književnosti. V sklepnem delu so opredeljena priporočila mentorjem za zavračanje cenzure pri pouku književnosti.
Ključne besede: bralni dogodek, kritično branje, cenzorske strategije, priporočila mentorjem

Igor Saksida: Curriculum Readers, Taboos and Censorship Strategies (the Case of the Cankar Award Contest). Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 105–114.
In the introduction, the article focuses on those rights of the reader (D. Pennac) that cannot be fulfilled in the reading event. It then delineates the main layers of provocative texts (theme, perspective, plot, literary character, the use of language, mood); these elements of the reader’s response related to ideological and social assumptions can label a specific text as a taboo text. In the main part, the article reveals censorial strategies: anonymous incitement on the Internet, evaluation of unread texts, unfair information in the media, and obstacles that emerge from authoritarian or idyllic concepts of children’s literature. In the concluding part, the article provides some recommendations for mentors in fighting censorship.
Keywords: reading event, critical reading, censorship strategies

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|105–114



Alenka Žbogar: Gimnazijski pouk književnosti v luči prenove in posodobitve. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 115–122.
Posodobljeni gimnazijski učni načrt za slovenščino (2008) primerjamo s prenovljenim učnim načrtom za slovenski jezik in književnost iz leta 1996 in ugotavljamo, da se kontinuiteta pouka književnosti kaže v kompetenčnem pristopu, novost učnega načrta iz leta 2008 pa je poudarjeni sistemski pristop. Oba didaktična pristopa je začrtala Boža Krakar Vogel.
Ključne besede: pouk književnosti, gimnazijski učni načrt za slovenščino, kompetenčni pristop, sistemski pristop

Alenka Žbogar: Teaching Literature in Grammar School in the Light of Its Reform and Modernisation. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 115–122.
In the article, the revised Grammar school curriculum for Slovene (2008) is compared with the revised syllabus for the Slovenian language and literature from 1996. It has been established that the continuity of the teaching of literature indicates the competence approach, while the novelty of the UN 2008 lies in its systemic approach. Both didactic approaches were defined by Boza Krakar Vogel.
Keywords: teaching literature, school curriculum for teaching Slovenian language and literature in grammar school, competence approach, systemic approach

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|115–122



Marja Bešter Turk: Dejanski in želeni vpliv monografij Leopoldine Plut Pregelj na poslušanje v slovenski šoli. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 123–129.
Na to, da je v učnih načrtih za slovenščino v osnovni šoli in srednjih šolah od leta 1998 vključeno razvijanje zmožnosti poslušanja, je med drugim vplivala tudi knjiga Učenje ob poslušanju (1990) avtorice Leopoldine Plut Pregelj, prvo monografsko delo o poslušanju v Sloveniji. Ker je leta 2012 izšla njena posodobljena in razširjena izdaja Poslušanje – način življenja in vir znanja, nas zanima, ali lahko tudi ob slednji razmišljamo o kakovostnejšem pouku (slovenščine).
Ključne besede: razvijanje zmožnosti poslušanja pri predmetu slovenščina, didaktično načelo poslušanja, učni pogovor, učni načrt za slovenščino, Leopoldina Plut Pregelj: Poslušanje – način življenja in vir znanja

Marja Bešter Turk: The Actual and Desired Impact of Leopoldina Plut Pregelj’s Monographs on Listening Skills in Slovenian Schools. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 123–129.
The development of listening ability has been included in the Slovenian language curriculum in primary and secondary schools since 1998, due in part to the impact of the book Learning by Listening (1990) by Leopoldina Plut Pregelj, the first monograph on listening skills in Slovenia. The updated and expanded edition of this work was published in 2012 under the title Listening – A Way of Life and a Source of Knowing, and it is interesting to consider whether the new edition can also contribute to improving the quality of (Slovenian language) lessons.
Keywords: development of listening ability in Slovenian language classes, didactic principle of listening, classroom discussion, Slovenian language curriculum, Leopoldina Plut Pregelj: Listening – A Way of Life and a Source of Knowing

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|123–129



Erika Kržišnik: Frazeologija v šoli – drugič. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 131–142.
V prispevku predstavljamo in interpretiramo rezultate ankete, ki smo jo po 27 letih konec leta 2014 ponovno izvedli med 234 dijaki prvih (štirje razredi) in četrtih (pet razredov) letnikov srednjih šol, treh gimnazij – od tega dve ljubljanski in ena celjska – in ene ljubljanske srednje tehnične šole. Anketa, nastala sredi 80. let 20. stoletja, vsebuje slovenske frazeme, ki so za dijake zdaj še nekoliko bolj tradicionalni, zato smo dodali nekaj danes pogostih in aktualnih frazemov. Opazovali smo poznavanje frazemov po obliki, pomenu in rabi. Rezultati kažejo razmerja med šolami in razredi, posebej med prvimi in četrtimi letniki. Interpretacija rezultatov deloma zadeva tudi anketo samo in izbrane frazeme.
Ključne besede: frazeologija, slovenska frazeologija, frazeologija v šoli, anketiranje, časovna zaznamovanost

Erika Kržišnik: Phraseology at School 2. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 131–142.
The article presents and interprets the results of a survey carried out for a second time in 2014, some 27 years after its initial execution. The sample included 234 first-year secondary school students (four classes) and fourth-year secondary school students (five classes). Three of the secondary schools were grammar schools (two in Ljubljana and one in Celje) and one was a technical school in Ljubljana. Originating in the 1980s, the survey contains Slovenian phrasemes that secondary school students now consider slightly more traditional; we therefore added some phrasemes frequently used and current today. We monitored the knowledge of phrasemes in terms of form, meaning and use. The results show the relationships between schools and classes, primarily between the first and fourth grades. The interpretation of the results is partly determined by the survey itself and the selected phrasemes.
Keywords: phraseology, Slovenian phraseology, phraseology at school, surveying, temporal markedness

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|131–142



Marko Ljubešić in Mirjana Benjak: Narečje v projektnem učenju. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 143–150.
Pouk maternega jezika v hrvaškem šolskem sistemu zanemarja učencev narečni idiom, zato predlagamo didaktični model, ki temelji na projektnem učenju. Izhajamo iz načela lokalnosti, ustreznosti, aktualizacije in zanimivosti ter korelacijsko-integracijskih povezav med sorodnimi učnimi predmeti. S tem vzpostavljamo novo paradigmo pri poučevanju hrvaščine.
Ključne besede: hrvaščina, narečje in knjižni jezik, projektno učenje, korelacijsko-integracijske povezave

Marko Ljubešić in Mirjana Benjak: Dialect in Project-Based Learning. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 143–150.
In order to change the approach towards teaching the native language in the Croatian school system, which neglects the student’s (dialect) idiom, a methodical model based upon the project method system is proposed. Taking as a starting point the principles of homeland, appropriateness, actualisation and interest, on the one hand, and the correlative-integrative relations between the related subjects, on the other, the authors establish a new paradigm in the teaching of standard language.
Keywords: dialect and standard language, project-based learning, correlative-integrative relations

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|143–150



Sonja Starc: Jezik usvajamo in se ga učimo iz besedila – neumetnostnega in umetnostnega. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 151–159.
Razprava skuša utemeljiti prepričanje, da bi morali učenci pri jezikovnem pouku usvajati slovenščino in jo spoznavati kot sistem tudi ob umetnostnem besedilu, ne le ob neumetnostnem. Diahroni pregled učnih načrtov za slovenščino in iz njih izhajajočega učnega gradiva pokaže oster nihaj v šolski praksi od spoznavanja jezika le ob umetnostnih besedilih do povezovanja jezikovnega pouka le z neumetnostnimi. Uravnotežena rešitev pa se kaže v pojmovanju inherentnih lastnosti besedila po sodobnih jezikoslovnih teorijah, npr. sistemsko-funkcijski, torej v spoznavanju vseh izraznih možnosti jezikovnega sistema v besedilu kot takem – neumetnostnem in umetnostnem.
Ključne besede: besedilo kot komunikacijska pojavitev, jezikovni pouk, učni načrti, učbeniki, izpitne pole

Sonja Starc: Peopel Acquire Language through Texts – Non-Literary and Literary. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 151–159.
The article argues that students should acquire and learn about Slovenian language at school using literary texts and not only non-literary texts. A diachronic survey of the curricula and the respective textbooks for Slovenian language classes reveals a sharp swing in the teaching praxis from learning the language only through literary texts to the recent language pedagogy using only non-literary texts. A properly balanced solution should be found in conceptualising the notion of text and teaching it according to the text’s inherent characteristics, as determined by linguistic theories such as systemic functional linguistics. This means learning about the potential resources in the language as a system that creates meanings in any text: non-literary and literary.
Keywords: text as a communication phenomenon, language classes, curricula, textbooks, exam scripts

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|151–159



Hotimir Tivadar: Vloga pravorečja in njegovo poučevanje v slovenskem osnovno- in srednješolskem izobraževanju. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 161–172.
V slovenskem prostoru je pouk govora in pravorečja pogosto zapostavljen. Načeloma se v slovenistični stroki ukvarjamo predvsem s pisnim jezikom, branjem in z »bralno pismenostjo«, torej kvečjemu z branjem kot mehaničnim pretvarjanjem pisnega besedila v govor, pogosto celo samo s tihim branjem. Tudi pri nacionalnem preverjanju znanja in na maturi je poudarek na pisnem preverjanju, govoru pa sta le posredno namenjeni sprotno delo v razredu in ustno preverjanje. V tem članku želimo predstaviti realno prisotnost govora v učnih načrtih in učbenikih (prikazano z odstotnim deležem), kar bo lahko podlaga za nadaljnje delo in razvoj pouka govora. Zavedati se moramo, da se je položaj slovenskega jezika v zadnjih letih spremenil in je raba slovenskega jezika kot prvega jezika v javnosti na Slovenskem manj samoumevna, kot je bila na začetku slovenske državnosti. Zato je poučevanje govora v osnovni in srednjih šolah še pomembnejše, vloga učiteljev, ki so predvsem v osnovni šoli modelni govorci, pa odločilna.
Ključne besede: slovenski jezik, govor, pravorečje, pouk prvega/maternega jezika, šolstvo, retorika

Hotimir Tivadar: The Role and Teaching of Orthoepy in Slovenian Primary and Secondary Education. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 161–172.
The teaching of speech and orthoepy is often neglected in Slovenia. Slovenian studies and disciplines mostly deal with written language and “written literacy”, thus at best treating reading as a mechanical conversion of the written text into speech, often only through silent reading. Even when it comes to the national assessment of knowledge and the Matura exam, the emphasis is on the written examination, while speech is only indirectly given regular attention in class work and during oral exams. In this article, we present the actual presence of speech in syllabuses and text books (shown in percentages), which can serve as a basis for future work and the development of educational courses in speech and orthoepy. We must be aware of the fact that the position of Slovenian language has changed in the last few years, and that the use of Slovenian language as a first language in public in Slovenia is less self-evident than it was when Slovenia gained independence. The teaching of speech in primary and secondary schools is therefore even more important, and the role of teachers, who, especially in primary schools, function as role models, is crucial.
Keywords: Slovenian language, speech, orthoepy, native language courses, educational system, rhetoric

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|161–172



Jerca Vogel: Modeli jezikovnega pouka pri predmetu slovenščina od leta 1990 do danes. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 173–183.
Prispevek razpravlja o razvoju pouka slovenskega jezika kot prvega/maternega jezika po letu 1990. Pri tem se usmeri na tri modele: formalistično-racionalni, komunikacijski ter kognitivno-kritični komunikacijski model. Ob vsakem predstavi spodbude, ki so pripeljale do njegovega oblikovanja, jezikoslovna izhodišča, splošne modele jezikovnega pouka in njihovo uresničitev v učnem načrtu za slovenski jezik v gimnaziji. Na podlagi analize učnega načrta iz leta 2008 je v sklepu izpeljan razmislek o treh odprtih mestih: vlogi metaznanja, konceptu identitetne vloge jezika in značilnostih kritičnega sporazumevanja.
Ključne besede: didaktika prvega jezika, modeli jezikovnega pouka, komunikacijski pouk jezika, kritična sporazumevalna zmožnost, jezikovna zavest, identitetna vloga jezika

Jerca Vogel: Models of Teaching Slovenian Language as the First/Mother Tongue from 1990 until Today. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 173–183.
The article discusses the development of teaching Slovenian language as a first/mother tongue since 1990. The focus is on three models: the rational-formalist model, the communicative model, and the cognitive-critical communicative model. The article explains the reasons for the formation of each of these models, as well as explicating their linguistic bases, general models of language teaching and their implementation in the curriculum for the Slovenian language in grammar school. Based on an analysis of the curriculum from 2008, reflection on three open questions is suggested in the conclusion: the role of meta-knowledge, the concept of the identity role of language, and the typical characteristics of critical communication.
Keywords: didactics of first language, models of language teaching, communicative language teaching, critical communicative competence, language awareness, identity role of language

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|173–183



Milena Mileva Blažić: Od recepcijske do sistemske didaktike književnosti. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 185–190.
V članku je obravnavana znanstvena pot Bože Krakar Vogel od začetnega obdobja, ko se je raziskovala mladinsko književnost, do osrednjega, didaktičnega obdobja, v katerem je definirala, klasificirala in uveljavila književno didaktiko na univerzitetni ravni. S predmetnim področjem se avtorica ukvarja raziskovalno, pedagoško in strokovno. Odločilno je prispevala k posodobitvi metodike v didaktiko književnosti in k spremembi didaktične paradigme od recepcijske k sistemski didaktiki književnosti.
Ključne besede: didaktika književnosti, sistemska didaktika književnosti, berila, ustvarjalnost, Boža Krakar Vogel

Milena Mileva Blažić: From Reception Didactics to Systemic Didactics of Literature. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 185–190.
The paper researches the academic path of Boža Krakar Vogel from its initial phase, when she dealt with youth literature, to its central, didactic phase, when she defined, classified and established didactics at the university level. Boža Krakar Vogel engaged in this field at three levels: academic (research), professional (textbooks) and pedagogical (mentoring postgraduate students). Initially, she helped upgrade the field of teaching methods to the didactics of literature, while also changing the didactics paradigm from that of reader-response theory to literary system theory.
Keywords: literature teaching, systemic literature teaching, textbooks, creativity, Boža Krakar Vogel

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|185–190



Elizabeta Jenko: 650 let Univerze na Dunaju – 40 let slovenistike na Univerzi na Dunaju – 15 let sodelovanja z Božo Krakar Vogel. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 191–198.
Pričujoči članek prikazuje štiridesetletni razvoj slovenistike na Univerzi na Dunaju, ki v resnici sega v mnogo daljšo preteklost. Teme, ki se ji včasih očitajo subjektivni pogledi, se bomo lotili s pomočjo interpretacije zgodovinskih podatkov, na temelju katerih bom razkrili mehanizme, ki so slovenistiki krojili pogoje tako, da se je skozi čas opirala zlasti na posameznike in posameznice – mednje sodi tudi jubilantka Boža Krakar Vogel.
Ključne besede: Dunaj, univerza, slavistika, slovenistika, didaktika

Elizabeta Jenko: 650Years of the University of Vienna – 40 Years of Slovenian Studies at the University of Vienna – 15 Years of Cooperation with Boža Krakar Vogel. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 191–198.
In this paper, we present the 40-year official history of Slovenian Studies at the University of Vienna, starting in 1975, although the use of Slovenian at this university dates back at least to 1849. Using historical data, we try to interpolate and illustrate the processes that have significantly influenced the development of Slovenian at this university, mostly based on the personal dedication of individual people, among them Boža Krakar Vogel.
Keywords: Vienna, university, Slavonic studies, Slovenian studies, didactics

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|191–198



Danijela Trškan: Današnje arabske države v učbenikih za slovenščino v osnovnih in srednjih šolah. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 199–207.
V prispevku prikazujemo literarna besedila, ki se nanašajo na današnje arabske države in so vključena v osnovnošolske in srednješolske učbenike za književnost pri slovenščini. Izpostavljamo predvsem tiste vsebine, pri katerih mladi spoznavajo zgodovino in kulturo ter avtorje književnih del s področja današnjih arabskih držav. Menimo, da poznavanje in razumevanje drugih držav in načinov življenja pomaga mladim razumeti lastno kulturo in preteklost. Izbrani literarni odlomki v slovenskih učbenikih prikazujejo, kakšno podobo o današnjem arabskem svetu lahko pridobijo učenci/dijaki pri pouku slovenščine v osnovnih in srednjih šolah v Republiki Sloveniji.
Ključne besede: arabske države, učbeniki, slovenščina, književnost, zgodovina, osnovna šola, srednja šola

Danijela Trškan: Todayʼs Arab Countries in Textbooks for Slovenian Language in Primary and Secondary Schools. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 199–207.
The paper presents literary texts that relate to today’s Arab countries and are included in the primary and secondary school textbooks for Slovenian language. Particular emphasis is placed on content in which young people can learn about history and culture, and about authors of literary works in today’s Arab countries. We believe that knowledge and understanding of other countries and ways of life help young people to understand their own culture and past. The selected literary passages in Slovenian textbooks show what kind of image of today’s Arab world students can gain in Slovenian lessons in primary and secondary schools of the Republic of Slovenia.
Keywords: Arab countries, textbooks, Slovenian language, literature, history, primary school, secondary school

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|199–207



Darinka Ambrož: Šolski esej in splošna matura iz slovenščine. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 209–217.
Razvoj šolskega eseja pri splošni maturi iz slovenščine je tesno povezan z razvojem didaktike književnosti, kot ga je utemeljila Boža Krakar Vogel. V obdobju dvajsetih let so se spreminjali navodila za pisanje eseja, način ocenjevanja in število predpisanih literarnih besedil, stalnica pa je skrbna izbira vsakoletnega tematskega sklopa. Nadaljnji razvoj šolskega eseja pri splošni maturi iz slovenščine je pomembna in zahtevna naloga, ki bi terjala usklajeno strokovno delo univerzitetnih strokovnjakov s področja književnosti in didaktike književnosti, strokovnjakov Zavoda za šolstvo Republike Slovenije ter kadrovsko okrepljene Predmetne izpitne komisije za slovenščino, ki deluje v okviru Državnega izpitnega centra.
Ključne besede: šolski esej, splošna matura iz slovenščine, književna didaktika, Boža Krakar Vogel, cilji, spremembe, izbor literarnih besedil

Darinka Ambrož: The School Essay and General Matura in Slovenian Language. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 209–217.
The development of the school essay as part of the General Matura in Slovenian language is closely related to the development of the didactics of literature founded by Boža Krakar Vogel. In the last two decades, the instructions for writing the essay, the method of its grading, and the number of prescribed literary works have changed, while the prudent selection of the thematic headings has remained a constant. Further development of the school essay in the General Matura is an important and demanding task that requires co-ordinated professional efforts on the part of academics in the area of literature and the didactics of literature, as well as on the part of experts from the National Education Institute of the Republic of Slovenia and the examination committee for Slovenian language, which has benefitted from staff reinforcement, acting within the framework of the National Examinations Centre.
Keywords: school essay, General Matura in Slovenian language, didactics of literature, Boža Krakar Vogel, selection of literary works

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|209–217



Mojca Bavdek in Marija Končina: Preverjanje sporazumevalne zmožnosti v slovenskem jeziku na splošni maturi od začetkov do danes. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 219–227.
Članek prinaša zgoščen prikaz preverjanja in vrednotenja znanja slovenskega jezika na splošni maturi. Navaja avtorsko ekipo, ki je izdelala načrt maturitetnega izpita iz materinščine, predstavlja zgradbo izpita, drugo izpitno polo, namenjeno razčlembi neumetnostnega besedila, in zahteve, ki jih mora tako besedilo izpolnjevati, način vrednotenja in ocenjevanja te pole ter ustni del izpita. Predstavlja maturitetni katalog in seminarje za učitelje, vključene v izvedbo mature.
Ključne besede: uvedba mature, izpitna shema, taksonomija izpitne pole, izpitni katalog, seminarji za učitelje

Mojca Bavdek in Marija Končina: Testing Commmunicative Competence in Slovenian at the General Matura Examination from Its Beginnings to Today. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 219–227.
The article provides a concise review of the verification and evaluation of pupils’ Slovenian language proficiency in the general secondary school leaving examination (the so-called Matura). It lists the team of authors who planned and designed the Slovenian language examination, as well as presenting the examination structure, the Second Examination Paper intended for the linguistic analysis of a non-fiction text, and the requirements that such a text should meet. The article also discusses the method of evaluation and assessment of the Examination Paper and the oral part of the examination, as well as presenting the examination catalogue and seminars for teachers involved in the implementation of the General Matura Examination.
Keywords: introducing the general secondary school leaving examination (Matura), examination scheme, taxonomy of the examination paper, examination catalogue, seminars for teachers

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|219–227



Majda Degan Kapus: Branja − učbeniki (berila) za današnji in prihodnji čas. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 229–233.
V okviru prenove književnega pouka so v letih 1998–2011 nastajali tudi novi učbeniki za književnost, ki so sledili novim učnim konceptom in didaktičnim izhodiščem Bože Krakar Vogel. Članek povzema temeljne značilnosti gimnazijskih učbenikov Branja 1, 2, 3 in 4, njihovo zasnovo, sestavo, izbor besedil in didaktični instrumentarij.
Ključne besede: učbenik za književnost, pouk književnosti, didaktika književnosti

Majda Degan Kapus: Readings − Textbooks (Reading Materials) for Today and the Future. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 229–233.
New textbooks for literature pursuing the contemporary didactical concepts of Boža Krakar Vogel emerged as the curriculum underwent reform in the period 1998–2011. The aim of the present article is to outline the key features of the gimnazija literature textbooks Readings 1, 2, 3, 4, focusing on their concepts, structure, selection of texts and didactical approaches.
Keywords: literature textbook, literature, didactics of literature

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|229–233



Miran Hladnik: O učbenikih. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 235–240.
Članek povzema izkušnje pisca z recenziranjem elektronskih učbenikov za slovensko književnost v osnovni in srednji šoli in sestavljanjem ter urejanjem univerzitetnih učbenikov. Kritičen je do slogovnih in miselnih stereotipov in do zaslužkarstva založb ter nagovarja k prehodu na digitalne učbenike, ki naj bodo prosto dostopni na spletu.
Ključne besede: učbenik za slovensko književnost, učbeniški slog, prosti dostop, založba

Miran Hladnik: On Textbooks. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 235–240.
The article summarises the author’s experience in reviewing e-textbooks for Slovenian literature in elementary and secondary schools, as well as his experience in writing and editing academic textbooks. It criticises stereotype knowledge and expression, as well as the greed of publishing houses. Textbooks should be digital and open access.
Keywords: textbook for Slovenian literature, textbook style, open access, publishing house

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|235–240



Brane Šimenc in Polonca Tomaževič: Zunanje ocenjevanje šolskega eseja na splošni maturi od začetka do danes. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 241–247.
Prispevek obravnava zunanje ocenjevanje prve izpitne pole, to je šolskega eseja, s praktičnega, operativnega zornega kota, tako da najprej predstavi sedanje ocenjevanje šolskega eseja in rezultate, ki jih pri tem dosegamo, nato predstavi ocenjevanje nalog na začetku uvajanja mature in nazadnje opiše razvoj ocenjevanja do danes, kot so ga narekovale pridobljene izkušnje, spremembe učnih načrtov in večja sposobnost kandidatov za tvorjenje besedilno zahtevnejših nalog. Razvoj prve maturitetne izpitne pole in ocenjevanja deli na dve obdobji, zamejeni z letom 2002.
Ključne besede: zunanje ocenjevanje, razpravljalni ali interpretativni esej, navodila za ocenjevanje, ocenjevalni obrazec

Brane Šimenc in Polonca Tomaževič: External Evaluation of the School Essay in the General Matura Exam from Its Beginnings to Today. Jezik in slovstvo. 3-4/2015. 241–247.
The present contribution deals with the external evaluation of Examination Paper No. 1, i.e., the school essay, from the practical and operational point of view. It first presents the current practices of evaluation and the achieved results, then addresses the evaluation of the tasks at the time of the introduction of the matura exam, and finally describes the development of the evaluation to the present day, as dictated by the experience gained, the changes in the syllabus, and the increased competence of the candidates in solving textually demanding tasks. The development of the first matura exam paper and its evaluation is divided into two periods, with the year 2002 as the dividing line.
Keywords: external evaluation, discussion or interpretation essay, evaluation instructions, evaluation form

PDF: http://www.jezikinslovstvo.com/pdf.php?part=2015|3-4|241–247