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Številka 1/2018 ~ Issue 1/2018



Darija Skubic, Martina Ozbič: Samoglasniki v stiku: primer slovensko-italijanskih dvojezičnih govork. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2018. 3–18.
Namen prispevka je preučiti fonetsko interferenco in prikazati značilnosti izgovora samoglasnikov dveh skupin govork – slovensko-italijansko Slovenk iz Trsta in okolice ter enojezičnih Slovenk iz Slovenije. Želimo ugotoviti, ali in v čem se tržaška slovenščina razlikuje od slovenščine govorcev iz Slovenije in ali ima dvojezična oseba iz Trsta enoten ali dvojen samoglasniški sistem. Rezultati kažejo, da se formanti slovenskih samoglasnikov med skupinama govork skoraj pri vseh samoglasnikih (pri F1 ali/in F2) statistično pomembno razlikujejo tako po variabilnosti kot glede na povprečje. Samoglasniki, pri katerih se statistično pomembne razlike niso pokazale, so naglašeni in nenaglašeni /a/ ter /ɔ/. Lahko torej trdimo, da imajo tržaške govorke samostojen in dokaj enoten samoglasniški sistem.
Ključne besede: sociofonetika, samoglasniki, formanti, slovenščina, italijanščina

Darija Skubic, Martina Ozbič: Vowels in Contact: The Case of Slovenian-Italian Bilingual Speakers. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2018. 3–18.
The topic of our research is the phonetic interferences and characteristics of the pronunciation of vowels by Slovenian-Italian bilingual speakers from Trieste and by monolingual Slovenians from Slovenia. By analysing Slovenian vowels (formants) we tried to identify the differences in the vowel space of monolingual and bilingual Slovenian speakers and to determine whether bilingual speakers have one or two vowel systems. The results show that the Italian language and the Trieste dialect exert a strong influence on the vocalic system of bilingual speakers, as the formants of their Slovenian vowels (at F1 or/and F2) differ significantly in variability and average value from those of monolinguals. All of the formants, except for F1 and F2 of stressed and unstressed /a/ and /ɔ/, differ significantly between the two groups. It can be concluded that Slovenian speakers from Trieste have an independent and unitary vowel system.
Keywords: sociophonetics, vowels, formants, Slovenian, Italian



Jana Volk: Polglasnik v slovenskem spontanem govoru prebivalcev Obale. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2018. 19–37.
Prispevek predstavlja rezultate instrumentalne analize polglasnika v spontanem govoru obalnih govorcev. Meritve polglasnika so primerjane z meritvami samoglasniškega sistema slovenščine v zamejstvu in italijanščine (saj so to ozemeljsko najbližje meritve) ter z meritvami samoglasniškega sistema standardne slovenščine. Že rezultati perceptivnih analiz za samoglasniški sistem obalnega govora nakazujejo, da se predvideni polglasnik v govoru obalnih govorcev ne uresničuje v vseh kategorijah enako in da lahko variira tudi pri istem govorcu. Zato smo posebej analizirali izgovor posameznih govorcev in izgovor glede na kategorije pojavljanja polglasnika po Slovenskem pravopisu (2001), Slovenski slovnici (2000) in Slovenski zborni izreki (2003).
Ključne besede: spontani govor, sredinski glasovi, polglasnik, Obala, instrumentalna analiza

Jana Volk: Schwa in Slovenian Spontaneous Speech among Residents of the Slovenian Coast. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2018. 19–37.
The article presents the results of an instrumental analysis of schwa in the spontaneous speech of speakers from the Slovenian coast. The measurements of schwa in spontaneous speech were compared to the measurements of the vowel systems of Slovenian and Italian languages (since they are geographically the closest measurements) obtained in regions across the Italian border. Finally, they were compared to the measurements of the vowel system of standard Slovene. The results of the perceptive analyses of the vowel system of coastal speech indicate that the predicted schwa in the speech of coastal speakers is not realised the same way in all categories, and can even vary in the same speaker. A separate analysis was therefore undertaken for the pronunciations of individual speakers and pronunciations in the context of frequency categories of schwa according to the Slovenian Normative Guide, Slovenian Grammar, and standard Slovenian pronunciation.
Keywords: spontaneous speech, intermediate sounds, schwa, the Slovenian coast, instrumental analysis



Domen Krvina, Andreja Žele: O členkih, zlasti o njihovih razločevalnih lastnostih: poudarjen slovarski vidik . Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2018. 39–64.
Členki v nasprotju s prislovi (objektivno izražanje okoliščin) vedno izražajo subjektivno vrednotenje govorca oz. tvorca konkretnega besedila, zato so tudi slovaropisno glede natančnosti in izčrpnosti pomenskega opisa težje določljivi. Za prehod od prislovov k členkom je nujna subjektivizacija ocene oz. vrednotenja. Ta prehod je značilen za izpridevniške prislove, ki poimenujejo neko relativno lastnost oz. vrednotenje. Primerjalno z medmeti kot modifikatorji celotne stavčne povedi so členki izrazito slovnično-pomensko vezani na posamezni stavčni člen, kar pomeni, da so znotrajstavčni modifikatorji. Vsebina členkov (in medmetov) je govorno dejanje – so funkcijske besede, zato so slovarske razlage zanje funkcijske. Pri prvotnih medmetih se splošnejša oz. širša razpoloženjskost prek povedkovniške odzivnosti lahko sprevrača in zoži npr. v členkovno zanikanje. Pri pravih členkih se v slovarskem sestavku pogosto menjujeta poudarjena naklonska vloga, ki izraža govorčev odnos do sporočanega, in povezovalna vloga v besedilu. V razmerju med vezniško in členkovno rabo večina vezniških besed zahteva samostojno slovarsko obravnavo iztočnic s homonimno obravnavo prevladujočih naklonskih razmerij kot členkov.
Ključne besede: členki, členkovna raba, prislovi, slovar, slovarske razlage

Domen Krvina, Andreja Žele: On Particles, Especially Their Distinguishing Features, with Emphasis on the Lexicographic Point of View. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2018. 39–64.
Particles, as opposed to adverbs (objective expression of circumstances), always reflect the subjective evaluation of the speaker/author of the text; therefore, their meaning – as far as the accuracy and completeness of lexicographic description is concerned – is somewhat difficult to capture fully. For a transition from adverbs to particles to take place, a subjective approach to assessment/evaluation is a necessary prerequisite. This transition is characteristic of de-adjectival adverbs designating a relative property or evaluation. Compared to interjections (modifiers of the entire sentence), particles are inevitably grammatically-semantically bound to individual sentence elements, functioning as modifiers within the sentence. The content of both particles and interjections is a speech act rendering them the role of function words, which in turn means they are best described by so-called functional dictionary definitions. In interjections, their primary meaning of general mood expression can, through predicative responsiveness, be converted and narrowed into a particle one, quite commonly expressing negative attitude. In words that are solely particles, the dictionary entry frequently reflects the swapping of the prevailing modality role (expressing the speaker’s attitude towards the reported text) with a text-connecting role. In the majority of cases, the relationship between the use of a particular word as a conjunction and as a particle calls for an independent dictionary description of two (linked) homonyms, with the prevailing modality having its own particle entry.
Keywords: particles, use as particles, adverbs, dictionary, dictionary definitions



Mateja Curk: Jezik sodobnega literarnega diskurza koroških Slovencev. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2018. 65–73.
Ali je pisateljici pred ozadjem koroškega jezikovnega konflikta mogoče svobodno odločati o izbiri jezika, se sprašuje M. Haderlap. Preučevanje zgodovine jezikovnopolitičnega konflikta na avstrijskem Koroškem nadgrajuje premislek o tem, kaj v kontekstu kompleksnih jezikovnih in širših družbenih okoliščin, ki v sodobnem evropskem prostoru določajo življenje in literarno ustvarjanje koroških Slovencev, pomeni raba nemškega jezika.
Ključne besede: Maja Haderlap, jezik, izbira, svoboda

Mateja Curk: The Language of the Contemporary Literary Discourse of Carinthian Slovenes. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2018. 65–73.
On the background the Carinthian language conflict, is it possible for a writer to freely decide on the choice of language? In the article, historical research of language policy conflict in Austrian Carinthia is upgraded by rethinking the meaning of using German in the contemporary European context of complex linguistic and other social circumstances that determine the lives and the literary writing of Carinthian Slovenes.
Keywords: Maja Haderlap, language, choice, freedom



Eva Sicherl, Andreja Žele: Prekrivanke v slovenščini z vidika vpliva angleškega jezika. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2018. 75–88.
Prispevek predstavlja pojav prekrivank v slovenščini. Obravnava vpliv angleškega jezika na nastanek tovrstnih tvorjenk in po zgledu tujih jezikoslovnih teorij skuša izoblikovati tipologijo prekrivank za slovenščino. Tipologija hkrati vzpostavlja tudi merila, po katerih se prekrivanke kot poseben besedotvorni tip uveljavljajo tudi v slovenščini. Ločujemo prekrivanke v slovenščini in slovenske prekrivanke, in zasnove slovenskih prekrivank iščemo v že besedotvorno uveljavljenem procesu sklapljanja.
Ključne besede: prekrivanke, slovenščina, angleščina, sklapljanje, krnitev

Eva Sicherl, Andreja Žele: Blends in Slovene as Influenced by English. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2018. 75–88.
The article aims to present the phenomenon of blends in Slovene. It discusses the influence of English on the formation of such coinages in Slovene. A typology of blends for Slovene is proposed, based on some already established linguistic theories created for other languages. The proposed typology also provides criteria for the inclusion of blends as a specific type of word-formation process in Slovene. A distinction is made between blends imported into Slovene and Slovene-made blends, with the latter type based on the already established word-formation process of juxtaposition.
Keywords: blends, Slovene, English, juxtaposition, truncation



Danica Čerče: Ideološko zaznamovana recepcija Steinbeckovih del v komunistični Vzhodni Evropi. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2018. 89–99.
Kljub nekaterim razlikam med oblastnimi strukturami držav nekdaj komunističnega dela Evrope opazimo veliko podobnosti v recepciji Steinbecka in njegovih del. Z enoznačno ideologijo zaznamovano družbeno-politično okolje, ki je književna dela ocenjevalo predvsem s stališča sociološkega diskurza in koncept umetniške veličine povezovalo s politično korektnostjo, je v vseh državah ustvarilo mitizirano podobo Steinbecka, njegova dela pa postavilo za zgled vloge književnosti pri doseganju političnih ciljev. Podobnost v pisateljevi recepciji je zelo opazna tudi po prehodu teh držav v demokracijo. Z upadom ideološkega zlorabljanja književnosti in poudarkom na njeni estetski konceptualizaciji se je namreč povsod povečalo zanimanje prevajalcev in založnikov za manj znana in zaradi pomanjkanja ideoloških vsebin marginalizirana Steinbeckova dela.
Ključne besede: John Steinbeck, Vzhodna Evropa, komunizem, mitizirana podoba pisatelja, ideološko zlorabljanje književnosti

Danica Čerče: The Ideologically Biased Reception of John Steinbeck’s Works in Communist Eastern Europe. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2018. 89–99.
Despite some differences between the ruling regimes in the countries of the former communist Europe, the critical reception of Steinbeck and his works in these countries shares several commonalities. The social and economic environment of one-dimensional ideological views, in which literary works were mainly assessed from the perspective of sociological discourse and evaluated on the basis of their political correctness, created an idealised perception of the writer, with his/her works being praised as exemplary of the role of literature in attaining political aims. The similarities in Steinbeck’s status in these countries are also evident after their transition to democracy. Following the decrease in the ideological manipulation of literature with the concomitant emphasis on its aesthetic conceptualisation, the whole region has experienced increased interest of translators and publishers in Steinbeck’s lesser-known works, which were previously marginalised due to their lack of ideological structures.
Keywords: John Steinbeck, Eastern Europe, communism, idealised perception of the writer, ideological manipulation of literature



Sonja Pečjak, Tina Pirc: Iskanje bistva in povzemanje iz neumetnostnih besedil pri učencih 4. razreda osnovne šole. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2018. 101–112.
V prispevku prikazujemo del rezultatov raziskave o razvitosti dveh bralnih strategij – strategije iskanja bistva in strategije povzemanja iz neumetnostnih besedil pri učencih 4. razreda osnovne šole. Izsledki kažejo, da večina četrtošolcev ne obvlada oz. slabo obvlada uporabo teh dveh temeljnih strategij: 45 % učencev je v besedilih našlo manj kot tretjino bistvenih podatkov, 20 % učencev sploh ne zna narediti povzetka, 65 % pa jih naredi pomanjkljiv povzetek. Iz tega izhaja potreba po načrtnem razvoju teh spretnosti, ne le pri slovenščini, ampak tudi pri drugih predmetih. Hkrati prikazujemo, katere bralne značilnosti učencev v tem obdobju pomembno napovedujejo obvladovanje teh strategij.
Ključne besede: bralna zmožnost, bralne strategije, iskanje bistva, povzemanje

Sonja Pečjak, Tina Pirc: Identifying the Main Ideas and Summarising Non-Fiction Texts among Fourth Grade Primary School Students. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2018. 101–112.
The article presents the partial results of research on the development of two reading strategies among fourth-grade primary school students: identifying the main ideas and summarising non-fiction texts. The results reveal that most fourth-grade students fail to master, or poorly master, these two strategies: 45% of the students surveyed found less than a third of the main ideas of the texts, 20% did not know how to summarise a text, and 65% made an incomplete summary. This indicates a need to systematically develop these abilities not only in Slovenian language, but in other subjects as well. The research also demonstrates which reading characteristics of students at this stage significantly predict the mastering of these two strategies.
Keywords: reading ability, reading strategies, identifying main ideas, summarising



Marijan Dović: »Mojster besede« za tretje tisočletje: nova razstava v spominski hiši Otona Župančiča Vinica. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2018. 113–128.
Članek po uvodnem premisleku o pisateljskih hišah predstavi najobsežnejši slovenski literarno-muzejski projekt zadnjih let, razstavo Župančič – mojster besede, ki je nastala v letih 2014–2015 v okviru celovite obnove Spominske hiše Otona Župančiča Vinica (enota Belokranjskega muzeja Metlika). Avtor nove postavitve je Marijan Dović, likovno opremo je prispeval arhitekt Jurij Kocuvan, sodeloval je tudi Mestni muzej Ljubljana. Razstava vpeljuje nove prijeme, medije in tehnologije, da bi Župančičevo vsestransko besedno mojstrstvo kar najbolj slikovito približala obiskovalcem. Med odlikami postavitve so sveže zvočne interpretacije Župančičevih pesmi, dokumentarni film, nove fotografske in likovne stvaritve, privlačna avdio- in videooprema ter tematska igrala z ugankami na vrtu pred hišo. Med strokovnimi novostmi so rodovnik, prikaz pesnikove posmrtne kanonizacije in dejstvo, da je razstava dvojezična in s tem prvič dostopna tujcem.
Ključne besede: Oton Župančič, kulturni spomin, pisateljske rojstne hiše, literarni muzeji, spomeniki, kanonizacija

Marijan Dović: “A Master of Words” for the Third Millennium: The New Exhibition in the Oton Župančič Memorial House Vinica. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2018. 113–128.
The article presents the new principal exhibition entitled “Župančič – A Master of Words”, which was set up as part of the renovation of the Oton Župančič Memorial House in Vinica (2014–2015). Dedicated to Oton Župančič (1878–1949), one of the most important Slovenian poets and translators, the exhibition was set up by literary historian Marijan Dović and architect Jurij Kocuvan. It seeks to employ new approaches, media and technology to present Župančič’s versatile literary mastery to various types of visitors, from children to connoisseurs. The visitor is guided through three thematic sections: “Children’s Poetry and Bela Krajina”, “Župančič’s Drawing Room” and “Life and Work”. Among the achievements of the new layout are the fresh audio interpretations of Župančič’s poems, a new documentary film, an attractive audio and video design, and an outdoor playground that includes a beehive with Župančič’s famous riddles. The exhibition is set up bilingually (in Slovenian and English) and is thus available to foreigners for the first time.
Keywords: Oton Župančič, cultural memory, writers’ houses, literary museums, memorials, canonisation



Silvija Borovnik; Marija Kozar Mukič, Dušan Mukič, Monika Kropej Telban (ur.); Marko Stabej: V branje vam priporočamo. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2018. 129–130.

Silvija Borovnik; Marija Kozar Mukič, Dušan Mukič, Monika Kropej Telban (ur.); Marko Stabej: Recommended Reading. Jezik in slovstvo. 1/2018. 129–130.